Kayri Havens, Ph.D.

Chief Scientist and Negaunee Vice President of Science
(847) 835-8378
Curriculum Vitae:
Teaching and Research Affiliations:
  • Chief Scientist and Negaunee Vice President of Science, Chicago Botanic Garden
  • Adjunct Assistant Professor of Biology, University of Illinois at Chicago; Chicago, IL
  • Adjunct Professor of Biology, Northwestern University; Evanston, IL
  • Adjunct Assistant Professor of Biology, Loyola University Chicago; Chicago, IL
Selected Professional Associations:
  • American Public Gardens Association
  • Botanic Gardens Conservation International, U.S. board member
  • Budburst, co-director and senior scientist
  • Center for Plant Conservation
  • IUCN
  • Plant Conservation Alliance Non-Federal Cooperator Committee Chair
Research Interests:
  • Ex situ conservation of plants
  • Restoration ecology 
  • Pollination biology 
  • Improving native seed availability for restoration 

My research interests generally fall under the umbrella of reproductive ecology and conservation of plant species. My dissertation work focused on nonrandom reproductive success in a rare evening primrose (Oenothera organensis). I am currently working with a number of colleagues on genetic, demographic, and pollination studies on a threatened thistle (Cirsium pitcheri) that is being negatively impacted by a biocontrol weevil.

I am also interested in developing measures of success and best practices for ex situ plant conservation programs, from collecting genetically diverse seed accessions to minimizing genetic change during storage and increasing likelihood of success of restorations. A more recent area of focus involves adapting zoo conservation approaches for plants.

In restoration ecology, much of my work has focused on defining seed transfer zones, determining native seed needs, and improving native seed availability. I recently participated in a national assessment of native seed needs and the capacity of the industry to provide seed with the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine.

A final area of research focuses on invasive plant species, particularly at the intersection with horticulture. I am interested in improving predictive risk assessments and evaluation procedures for deliberately introduced plants, and led a team that developed the Chicago Botanic Garden's Invasive Plant Policy. Colleagues and I have modeled how fecundity differences among cultivars of invasive species is likely to impact (or not) their invasiveness.

Most of these projects are carried out in collaboration with graduate students. I have worked with students from programs at Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago, and the University of Illinois Urbana–Champaign.  

Selected Publications:

Sandacz, D., P. Vitt, T.M. Knight, P. CaraDonna, K. Havens. 2023. "The effects of the decline of a keystone plant species on a dune community plant-pollinator network." Frontiers in Conservation Science. 4:1183976. doi: 10.3389/fcosc.2023.1183976

Li, B., J. Fant, J. Zeldin, K. Skogen, K. Havens. 2023. "Genetic and floral trait changes in Oenothera organensis (Onagraceae) during long-term ex situ cultivation." International Journal of Plant Sciences 184: 237 - 251.

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. "An Assessment of Native Seed Needs and the Capacity for Their Supply: Final Report." The National Academies Press, Washington, DC.

DeVitis, M., K. Havens, R. Barak, L. Egerton-Warburton, A. Ernst, M. Evans, J. Fant, A. Foxx, K. Hadley, J. Jabcon, J. O’Shaughnessey, S. Ramakrishna, D. Sollenberger, S. Taddeo, R. Urbina-Casanova, C. Woolridge, L. Xu, J. Zeldin, A. Kramer. 2022. "Why are some species missing in restorations? A diagnostic tool for temperate grassland ecosystems." Frontiers in Conservation Science.

Foster, J.A, S.K. Walsh, K. Havens, A.T. Kramer, J.B. Fant. 2022. "Supporting long-term ex situ collection sustainability for an exceptional species extinct in the wild using a pedigree-based population management approach." Applications in Plant Sciences 10(5):e11491 DOI: 10.1002/aps3.11491

Finch, J., A.E. Seglias, A.T. Kramer, K. Havens. 2022. "Recruitment varies among milkweed seed sources for a habitat specialist but not generalist." Restoration Ecology.

Ollerton, J., J. Trunschke, K. Havens, et al. 2022. "Pollinator-flower interactions in gardens during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown of 2020." Journal of Pollination Ecology 31: 87–96.

Culley, T.M., K. Dreisilker, M.C. Ryan, J. Arcate Schuler, N. Cavallin, R. Gettig, K. Havens, H. Landel, and B. Shultz. 2022. "The Potential Role of Public Gardens as Sentinels of Plant Invasion." Biodiversity and Conservation, 1-16.

Griffith, M.P., F. Cartwright, M. Dosmann, J. Fant, E. Freid, K. Havens, B. Jestrow, A. Kramer, T.M. Magellan, A.W. Meerow, A. Meyer, V. Sanchez, E. Santiago-Valentín, E. Spence, J.A. Sutasche-Sustache, J. Francisco-Ortega, S. Hoban. 2021. "Ex situ conservation of large and small plant populations illustrates limitations of common conservation metrics." International Journal of Plant Sciences,

Spence, E.S., J. Fant, O. Gailing, M.P. Griffith, K. Havens, A.L. Hipp, P. Kadav, A. Kramer, P. Thompson, R. Toppila, M. Westwood, J. Wood, B.A. Zumwalde, S. Hoban. 2021. "Comparing genetic diversity in three threatened oaks." Forests 12: 561.

Lamb, N., K. Havens, J. Holloway, J.F. Steffen, J. Zeldin, A.T. Kramer. 2021. "Low passive restoration potential following invasive woody species removal in oak woodlands." Restoration Ecology 30: e13568.

Barak, R., Z. Ma, L.A. Brudvig, and K. Havens. 2021. "Factors influencing seed mix design for prairie restoration." Restoration Ecology  e13581.

Kilgore, S., K. Havens, A. Kramer, A. Lythgoe, L. MacKechnie, M. De Vitis. 2021. "Understanding Viola seed dormancy to improve and enhance reintroduction outcomes." Native Plants Journal 23: 40-55.

Gijsman, F., K. Havens, and P. Vitt. 2020. "Lifetime fecundity of a threatened Great Lakes endemic, Cirsium pitcheri." Global Ecology and Conservation.

Warneke, C.R., P. Vitt and K. Havens. 2020. "Laboratory feeding preferences of three Larinus weevil species on a threatened thistle and a co- occurring invasive knapweed: Implications for host choice and conservation." The American Midland Naturalist 183: 164-179.

Wood, J., J.D. Ballou, T. Callicrate, J.B. Fant, M.P. Griffith, A.T. Kramer, R.C. Lacy, A. Meyer, S. Sullivan, K. Traylor-Holzer, S.K. Walsh, and K. Havens. 2020. "Applying the zoo model to conservation of threatened exceptional plant species." Conservation Biology. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.13503

Griffith, M.P., T. Clase, P. Toribio, Y. Encarnación Piñeyro, X. Gratacos, V. Sanchez, A. Meerow, F. Jimenez, A. Meyer, K. Havens, and S. Hoban. 2020. "Can a botanic garden metacollection better conserve wild plant diversity? A case study comparing pooled collections to an ideal sampling model." International Journal of Plant Sciences.

Hoban, S. T. Callicrate, J. Clark, S. Deans, M. Dosmann, J. Fant, O. Gailing, K. Havens, A. Hipp, P. Kadav, A. Kramer, M. Lobdell, T. Magellan, A. Meyer, M. Pooler, E. Spence, P. Thompson, R. Toppila, S. Walsh, M. Westwood, J. Wood, and P. Griffith. 2020. "The optimal size of an ex situ conservation population: a comparison among 11 taxa in 5 genera." Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. An Assessment of the Need for Native Seeds and the Capacity for their Supply: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Harrison, S.P., R. Schoen, D. Atcitty, R. Fiegener, R. Goodhue, K. Havens, C. House, R.C. Johnson, E. Leger, V. Lesser, J. Opsomer, N. Shaw, D.E. Soltis, S. Swinton, E. Toth, and S.A. Young. 2020. "Preparing for the need for a supply of native seed." Ecological Restoration 38:203-206.

Vitt, P.L., K. Havens, C.J. Jolls, T. Knight. 2020. "Spatial and temporal factors influence the roles of exotic and native plant species in plant-pollinator networks." Ecosphere 11(2):e02981. 10.1002/ecs2.2981.

Roberson, E.B., A. Frances, K. Havens, J. Maschinski, A. Meyer, and L. Ott. 2020. "Fund plant conservation to solve biodiversity crisis." Science 367(6475): 258. doi: 10.1126/science.aba4360.

Oldfield, S., P. Olwell, N. Shaw, and K. Havens. 2019. Seeds of Restoration Success: Wild Lands and Plant Diversity in the U.S. Springer.

Havens, K., C.L. Jolls, T.M. Knight and P. Vitt. 2019. "We should know if a tool works (and how dangerous it is) before we use it: Response to Hinz et al." BioScience,

Jolls, C.L., J.N. Inkster, B.G. Scholtens, P. Vitt, K. Havens. 2019. "Rare but important: An endemic plant and the plant-insect visitor network of a dune ecosystem." Global Ecology and Conservation 18:e00603.

Bandara, R.G., J. Finch, J. L. Walck, S.N. Hidayati, and K. Havens. 2019. "Germination niche breadth and potential response to climate change differ among three North American perennials." Folia Geobotanica 54:5-17.

Havens, K., C.L. Jolls, T.M. Knight and P. Vitt. 2019. "Risks and Rewards: Assessing the Effectiveness and Safety of Invasive Plant Biocontrol." BioScience 69:247-258.

Kramer A.T., B. Crane, J. Downing, J. Hamrick, K. Havens, A. Highland, S. Jacobi, T.N. Kaye, E. Lonsdorf, J. Ramp-Neale, A. Novy, P. Smouse, D. Tallamy, A. White, J. Zeldin. 2019. "Risks, rewards, and realities when selecting native plants for different planting contexts." Restoration Ecology. 

Finch, J., J.L. Walck, S.N. Hidayati, A.T. Kramer, V. Lason, and K. Havens.. 2018. "Germination niche breadth varies inconsistently among three Asclepias congeners along a latitudinal gradient." Plant Biology.

Breed, M.F., A. Bischoff, P. Durruty, N.J.C. Gellie, E.K. Gonzales, P.A. Harrison, K. Havens, M. Karmann, F.F. Kilkenny, A.J. Lowe, P. Marques, P.G. Nevill, P.L. Vitt, A. Bucharova. 2018. "Priority actions to improve provenance decision-making." BioScience. doi:10.1093/biosci/biy050

White, A., J.B. Fant, K. Havens, M. Skinner, and A.T. Kramer. 2018. "Restoring species diversity: Assessing capacity in the U.S. native plant industry." Restoration Ecology. doi: 10.1111/rec.12705

Kramer, A.T., Wood, T.E., S. Frischie, and K. Havens. 2018. "Considering ploidy when producing and using mixed-source native plant materials for restoration." Restoration Ecology 26:13-19. 

Havens, K. 2017. "The role of botanic gardens and arboreta in restoring plants: from populations to ecosystems." In: Botanic Garden Conservation Science and Practice, S. Blackmore and S. Oldfield (eds.). Cambridge University Press. Pp. 134-165.

Vitt, P., T.M. Knight, M. Schutzenhofer, W. Kleiman, K. Havens and T. Bittner. 2017. "Experimental grazing and grass-specific herbicide benefit rare forb recruitment." Natural Areas Journal 37:161-169.

Havens, K. and P. Vitt. 2016. "The importance of phenological diversity in seed mixes for pollinator restoration." Natural Areas Journal 36: 500-506.

Williams, E.W., R. Cheung, C. Siegel, M. Howard, J. Fant, and K. Havens. 2016. "Persistence of the gypsophile Lepidospartum burgessii (Asteraceae) through clonal growth and limited gene flow." Conservation Genetics 17:1201-1211.

Fant, J.B., K. Havens, A.T. Kramer, S.K. Walsh, T. Callicrate, R.C. Lacy, M. Maunder, A. Hird Meyer, P.P. Smith. 2016. "What to do when we can’t bank on seeds: What botanic gardens can learn from the zoo community about conserving plants in living collections."  American Journal of Botany 103: 1-3.

Miller, J.S., P. P. Lowry, J. Aronson, S. Blackmore, K. Havens, and J. Maschinski. 2016. "Conserving biodiversity through ecological restoration: The potential contributions of botanical gardens and arboreta." Candollea 71: 91-98.

Williams, E.W., R. Cheung, C. Siegel, M. Howard, J. Fant, and K. Havens. 2016. "Persistence of the gypsophile Lepidospartum burgessii (Asteraceae) through clonal growth and limited gene flow." Conservation Genetics 17:1201-1211.

Havens, K. and P. Vitt. 2016. "The importance of phenological diversity in seed mixes for pollinator restoration." Natural Areas Journal 36: 500-506.

Havens, K. P. Vitt, S. Still, A.T. Kramer, J.B. Fant, and K. Schatz. 2015. "Seed sourcing for restoration in an era of climate change."  Natural Areas Journal 35:122-133.

Kramer, A.T. and K. Havens. 2015. "Report in brief: Assessing botanical capacity to address grand challenges in the United States." Natural Areas Journal 35: 83-89.

Guerrant, Jr., E.O., K. Havens, P.L. Fiedler, P. Vitt, D.A. Falk, K. Dixon. 2015. "Population structure integral to seed collection guidelines: a response to Hoban and Schlarbaum." Biological Conservation 184: 465-466.

Jolls, C.L., J.E. Marik, S.I. Hamze and K. Havens.  2015. "Population viability analysis and the effects of light availability and litter on populations of Cirsium pitcheri, a rare, monocarpic perennial of Great Lakes shorelines." Biological Conservation 187: 82–90.

Raven, P. and K. Havens. 2014. "Ex situ plant conservation and cryopreservation: Breakthroughs in tropical plant conservation." International Journal of Plant Sciences 175: 1-2.

Havens, K., A.T. Kramer and E.O. Guerrant. 2014. "Getting plant conservation right (or not): The case of the United States." International Journal of Plant Sciences 175: 3-10.

Guerrant, E.O., K. Havens and P. Vitt. 2014. "Sampling for effective ex situ plant conservation." International Journal of Plant Sciences 175: 11-20.

Fant, J.B., K. Havens, J.M. Keller, A. Radosavljevic and E.D. Yates.  2014. "The influence of contemporary and historic landscape features on the genetic structure of the sand dune endemic, Cirsium pitcheri (Asteraceae)." Heredity  112: 519–530.

Jefferson, L.V., M. Pennacchio, and K. Havens.  2014. Plant-derived Smoke and Seed Germination.  Oxford University Press. 316 pp.

Kramer, A.T., B. Zorn-Arnold and K. Havens. 2013. "Applying lessons from the U.S. Botanical Capacity Assessment Project to achieving the 2020 GSPC targets. " Proceedings of the Global Partnership for Plant Conservation.  Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 99: 172-179.

Fant, J.B., A.T. Kramer, E. Sirkin, and K. Havens. 2013. "Genetic changes in reintroduced populations of the narrowly endemic thistle, Cirsium pitcheri (Asteraceae)."  Botany  91: 301-308.

Havens, K. and S. Henderson. 2013. "Citizen science takes root." American Scientist  101: 378-385.

Schwarz-Ballard, J. and K. Havens. 2012. "The Elephant in the Room: Recognizing and Addressing Climate Change at Public Gardens." Public Garden  27:26-28.

Havens, K., C.L. Jolls, J.E. Marik, P. Vitt, and A.K. McEachern. 2012. "Effects of a Non-native Biocontrol Weevil, Larinus planus, and Other Emerging Threats on Populations of the Federally Threatened Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri)."  Biological Conservation  155: 202-211.

Madeja, G., L. Umek, and K. Havens. 2012. "Differences in Seed Set and Viability of Miscanthus  Cultivars Grown in Zone 5 and Their Potential for Invasiveness."  Journal of Environmental Horticulture 30: 42-50.

Henderson, S., D.L. Ward, K.K. Meymaris, P. Alaback, and K. Havens. 2012. "Project BudBurst: Citizen Science for All Seasons." Citizen Science: Public Collaboration In Environmental Research, J.L. Dickinson and R. Bonney (eds.). Cornell University Press. Pp 50-57.

Havens, K., P. Vitt and S. Masi.  2012. "Citizen Science on a Local Scale: The 'Plants of Concern' Program Undertakes Rare Plant Monitoring." Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment  10: 321-323.

Sundberg, M., P. DeAngelis, K. Havens, K. Holsinger, K. Kennedy, A.T. Kramer, R. Muir, P. Olwell, K. Schierenbeck, L. Stritch, and B. Zorn-Arnold. 2011. "Perceptions of strengths and deficiencies; disconnects between university science students and potential employers." BioScience  61: 133-138.

Havens, K.  2011. "Research at Public Gardens." Public Garden Management: A Complete Guide to the Planning and Administration of Botanical Gardens and Arboreta, D. Rakow and S. Lee (eds.). John Wiley & Sons Inc., New Jersey. Pp. 272-283.

Kramer, A.T. and K. Havens. 2011. "Assessing botanical capacity in the United States: gaps identified and strategic recommendations made to maximize conservation success." Australasian Plant Conservation  19: 21-22.

Havens, K. 2011. "Dynamic Floras and the Need for Consistent Terminology." Natural Areas Journal  31: 115-116.

Knight, T.M., K. Havens and P. Vitt. 2011. "Will the use of less fecund cultivars reduce the invasiveness of perennial plants?" BioScience  61: 816-822.

Tienes, M., K. Skogen, P. Vitt and K. Havens. 2010. "Optimal Monitoring of Rare Plant Populations: Report for the USDA Forest Service." 57 pages. Available at

Fant, J., A. Banai, K. Havens and P. Vitt. 2010. "Hybridization between the threatened plant, Lespedeza leptostachya  Englem and its co-occurring congener Lespedeza capitata  Michx.: morphological and molecular evidence." Conservation Genetics 11: 2195-2205.

Pennacchio, M., L. Jefferson, and K. Havens. 2010. Uses and Abuses of Plant-Derived Smoke: Its Ethnobotany as Hallucinogen, Perfume, Incense, and Medicine. Oxford University Press, 247 pp.

Kramer, A., K. Havens, and B. Zorn-Arnold. 2010.  Assessing Botanical Capacity to Address Grand Challenges in the United States. 64 pp. plus appendices. Available at

Vitt, P., K. Havens, A.T. Kramer, D. Sollenberger, and E. Yates. 2010. "Assisted migration of plants: changes in latitudes, changes in attitudes." Biological Conservation  143:18-27.

Vitt, P., K. Havens, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg. 2009. "Assisted migration: part of an integrated conservation strategy. Letter in response to Ricciardi and Simberloff. "Trends in Ecology and Evolution  24:473-474.

Kramer, A., and K. Havens. "Plant conservation genetics in a changing world." 2009. Trends in Plant Science  14:599-607.

Vitt, P., K. Havens, B. Kendall, and T.M. Knight. 2009. "Community-level management increases the viability of Tomanthera auriculata, a rare prairie annual."  Biological Conservation  142:798-805.

Hawkins, Belinda, Suzanne Sharrock, and K. Havens. 2008.  "Plants and Climate Change: Which Future?" Botanic Garden Conservation International  report, 96 pp.

Havens, K., P. Vitt, and J. Schwarz. 2008. "Your garden, our climate." Chicagoland Gardening  2:20-21.

Schwarz, J., K. Havens, and P. Vitt. 2008. "Understanding climate change through citizen science." Roots  5:22-24.

Jefferson, L.V., M. Pennacchio, K. Havens, B. Forsberg, D. Sollenberger, and J. Ault. 2008. "Ex situ germination responses of midwestern USA prairie species to plant-derived smoke." American Midland Naturalist  159:251-256.

Pennacchio, M., L.V. Jefferson, and K. Havens. 2007. "The inhibitory effects of plant-derived aerosol smoke on seed germination of  Arabidopsis thaliana."  Research Letters in Ecology, Vol. 2007:ID65083, 4 pp. Online.

Pennacchio, M., L.V. Jefferson, and K. Havens. 2007. "Where there's smoke, there's germination." Illinois Steward Fall, pp. 24-28.

Havens, K., P. Vitt, J. Schwarz, B. Orr, and T. Crimmins. 2007. "Chicago Botanic Garden's conservation and outreach efforts on climate change." BGjournal  4:13-16.

Pennacchio, M., L. V. Jefferson, K. Havens, and P. Olwell. 2007. "International conservation and land management exchange program."  Public Garden  22:29.

Havens, K., P. Vitt, M. Maunder, E. O. Guerrant Jr., and K. Dixon. 2006. Ex situ plant conservation and beyond." BioScience  56:525-531.

Havens, K. 2006. "Developing an invasive plant policy at a botanic garden: lessons learned." BGjournal  3:22-24.

Farnsworth, E.J., S. Klionsky, W.E. Brumback, and K. Havens. 2006. "A set of simple decision matrices for prioritizing collection of rare plant species for ex situ conservation." Biological Conservation  128:1-12.

Pennacchio, M., L.V. Jefferson, and K. Havens. 2005. "Smoke: Promoting germination of tallgrass prairie species." Chicago Wilderness Journal: Best Practices in Conservation and Restoration  3:14-19.

Pennacchio, M., L.V. Jefferson, and K. Havens. 2005. "Arabidopsis thaliana: a useful test species for phytotoxic bioassays." Journal of Chemical Ecology  31:1877-1885.

Maunder, M., K. Havens and E.O. Guerrant. 2004. "Ex situ plant conservation: out of the garden and into the world." Public Garden  19:8-12.

Havens, K., M. Maunder, E.O. Guerrant, and P. Vitt. 2004. "Conservation research at botanic gardens and arboreta." Public Garden  19:8-12.

Jefferson, L., K. Havens, and J. Ault. 2004. "Implementing invasive screening procedures: The Chicago Botanic Garden model." Weed Technology  18:1434-1440.

Havens, K., L. Jefferson, and P. Vitt. 2004. "Chicago Botanic Garden reaches beyond its borders." Public Garden  18:35-36.

Havens, K., E.O. Guerrant, M. Maunder, and P. Vitt. 2004. "Guidelines for ex situ conservation collection management: Minimizing risks." In Ex Situ  Plant Conservation: Supporting Species Survival in the Wild, ed. E.O. Guerrant, K. Havens, and M. Maunder, pp. 454-473. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.

Guerrant, E.O., P. Fiedler, K. Havens, and M. Maunder. 2004. "Revised genetic sampling guidelines for conservation collections of rare and endangered plants." In  Ex Situ Plant Conservation: Supporting Species Survival in the Wild, ed. E.O. Guerrant, K. Havens, and M. Maunder, pp. 419-441. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.

Maunder, M., E.O. Guerrant, K. Havens, and K. Dixon. 2004. "Realizing the full potential of ex situ contributions to global plant conservation." In Ex Situ  Plant Conservation: Supporting Species Survival in the Wild, ed. E.O. Guerrant, K. Havens, and M. Maunder, pp. 389-418. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.

Vitt, P. and K. Havens. 2004. "Integrating quantitative genetics into ex situ conservation and restoration practices." In Ex Situ Plant Conservation: Supporting Species Survival in the Wild, ed. E.O. Guerrant, K. Havens, and M. Maunder, pp. 286-304. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.

Maunder, M., K. Havens, E.O. Guerrant, and D. Falk. 2004. "Ex situ  methods: A vital but underused set of conservation resources." In Ex Situ  Plant Conservation: Supporting Species Survival in the Wild, eds. E.O. Guerrant, K. Havens, and M. Maunder, pp. 3-20. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.

Guerrant, E.O., K. Havens, and M. Maunder, eds. 2004. Ex Situ Plant Conservation: Supporting Species Survival in the Wild, 504 pp. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.

Havens, K. 2002. "Developing an Invasive Plant Policy: The Chicago Botanic Garden's Experience."  Public Garden  17(4):16-17.

Bell, T.J., M. Bowles, K. Havens, P. Vitt, and K. McEachern. 2002. "Reintroducing Pitcher's Thistle." Endangered Species Bulletin  27(3):14-15.

Havens, K. 1999. "Pollination biology: Implications for rare plant conservation." Ecological Restoration  17:217-219.

Ault, J.R. and K. Havens. 1999. "Micropropagation of Baptisia 'Purple Smoke'." Hortscience  34:353-354.

L.F. Delph and K. Havens. 1998. "Pollen competition in flowering plants." In Sperm Competition and Sexual Selection, ed. T.R. Birkhead and A.P. Moller, pp. 147-174. Academic Press.

Havens, K. and D.L. Holland. 1998. "Factors affecting reproductive success in a rare grass, Calamagrostis porteri ssp. insperata." Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden  85:64-68.

Havens, K. 1998. "The genetics of plant restoration." Restoration and Management Notes  16:68-72.

Havens, K. and L.F. Delph. 1996. "Differential seed maturation uncouples fertilization and siring success in Oenothera organensis (Onagraceae)."  Heredity  76:623-632.

Havens, K., K.A. Preston, C.R. Richardson, and L.F. Delph. 1995. "Nutrients affect allocation to male and female function in Abutilon theophrasti (Malvaceae)." American Journal of Botany  82:726-733.

Havens, K. 1994. "Clonal repeatability of in vitro pollen tube growth rates in Oenothera organensis (Onagraceae)." American Journal of Botany  81:161-165.

Graduate Students:
Rina Talaba (Northwestern University, master's degree program: advisor)
Karen Segura (Northwestern University, master's degree program: advisor)
Wes Knapp (University of North Carolina, Ph.D. program: committee member)
Dustin Wolkis (University of Copenhagen, Ph.D. 2023: dissertation examiner)
Imeña Valdes (Northwestern University, master's degree 2023: advisor)
Olivia Murrell (Northwestern University, master's degree 2023: committee member)
Daniel Sandacz (Northwestern University, master's degree 2022: advisor)
Jeremy Foster (Northwestern University, master's degree 2022: committee member)
Bing Li (Northwestern University, master's degree 2021: advisor)
Sam Kilgore (Northwestern University, master's degree 2020: committee member)
Jessamine Finch (Northwestern University, Ph.D. 2019: advisor)
Nora Gavin Smyth (Northwestern University, master's degree 2018: committee member)
Jordan Wood (Northwestern University, master's degree 2018: advisor)
Nathan Lamb (Northwestern University, master's degree 2018: committee member)
Becky Barak (Northwestern University, Ph.D. 2017: committee member)
Abbey White (Northwestern University, master's degree 2017: committee member)
Alex Seglias (Northwestern University, master's degree 2017: committee member)
Claire Ellwanger (Northwestern University, master's degree, 2016: committee member)
Adrienne Basey (Northwestern University, master's degree 2015: committee member)
Stephanie Fritchie (Northwestern University, master's degree 2015: committee member)
Christopher Warneke (Northwestern University, master's degree, 2015: advisor)
Paul Gulezian (University of Illinois at Chicago, Ph.D., 2011: committee member)
Jennifer Ison (University of Illinois at Chicago, Ph.D., 2010: committee member)
Glen Madeja (Northwestern University, master's degree, 2010: advisor)
Andrea Kramer (University of Illinois at Chicago, Ph.D., 2009: committee member)
Alona Banai (Northwestern University, master's degree, 2008: committee member)
Andrea Southgate (Northwestern University, master's degree, 2007: committee member)
Leora Siegel (University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign, master's degree, 2007: committee member)
Kathleen Craft (University of Illinois at Chicago, Ph.D., 2005: committee member)
Barbara Zorn Arnold (University of Illinois at Chicago, Ph.D., 2005): committee member
Hanilore Artiomow (University of Wisconsin, master's degree, 2002: committee member)
Zoe Diaz-Martin, Ph.D.
Marcello DeVitis, Ph.D.
Becky Barak, Ph.D.
Shannon Still, Ph.D.
Lara Jefferson, Ph.D.

Budburst: Budburst is a national citizen-science campaign to collect plant phenology data. Phenology (the timing of natural events such as first flower, bud burst, leaf color change) is related to the climate. Phenological observations have been used for centuries by farmers to maximize crop production, by nature lovers to anticipate optimal wildflower viewing conditions, and by many of us to prepare for seasonal allergies. Today, this well-established science is also used by scientists to track the effect of global warming and climate change on organisms and to make predictions about the future health of the environment. By tracking changes in the timing of these phenological events, scientists are able to better understand how our environment is changing.

Seeds of Success: The Chicago Botanic Garden is a member of the U.S. national seed banking program called Seeds of Success (SOS). SOS is actively collecting seeds of native plant species to use for restoration and to store for future needs.

Plant Conservation Alliance (PCA): The PCA is a consortium of ten federal government member agencies and more than 225 non-federal cooperators representing various disciplines within the conservation field: biologists, botanists, habitat preservationists, horticulturists, resources management consultants, soil scientists, special interest clubs, nonprofit organizations, concerned citizens, nature lovers, and gardeners. PCA members and cooperators work collectively to solve the problems of native plant extinction and native habitat restoration, ensuring the preservation of our ecosystem.

Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI): Both BGCI and its U.S. program, BGCI-US, are networks of botanic gardens dedicated to the conservation of threatened plants, the continued existence of which are intrinsically linked to global issues including poverty, human well-being, and climate change.

Center for Plant Conservation (CPC): The Chicago Botanic Garden is a member of CPC, a U.S. network of botanic gardens that is actively involved in ex situ conservation, reintroduction and research of rare plants. The mission of the CPC is to conserve and restore the imperiled native plants of the United States to secure them from extinction.