In Greek mythology, Iris is the Goddess of the Rainbow. She’s a messenger from the gods to mortals—a golden-winged goddess who travels to earth on a rainbow. When she arrives, colorful flowering plants—irises—sprout where her feet touch the ground. The genus Iris is a fitting name for a group of fabulous plants whose flowers represent a rainbow of hues.
There are about 300 iris species and thousands of cultivars. Their native habitat ranges from North America, Europe, Africa, and Asia where some grow on mountain tops, in meadows, deserts, alongside streams, and on hillsides. Depending on the species, they range in height from a few inches tall to several feet.
Iris blossoms are represented in emblems, such as the ‘fleur de lis’ of French kings, and on many flags. Irises appear in paintings by Vincent van Gogh, Claude Monet, and countless other modern artists. One of the oldest depictions of the plants are at the Palace of Minos at Knossos on Crete, painted nearly 4,000 years ago.
The flowers are easy to recognize. They have three upright petals called “standards” and three downward-facing sepals called “falls.” Flowers may be less than an inch wide to more than 7 inches across. Bloom time depends on the variety with some plants flowering in March and April and others blooming from May through mid-June.
Bearded Iris (I. germanica)
Few perennials offer the wide range of colors found in bearded irises. The common name is a nod to the thick “beards”—a fuzzy-looking midsection that appears on the falls of each flower. Breeders have created tens of thousands of bearded iris cultivars with a stunning range of flower colors and flowers that span from 4 to 7 inches wide. Plants range in size from miniature (8 inches tall) to more than 3 feet tall. The miniatures tend to bloom at the same time as late daffodils. Taller plants may need staking when the buds have formed.
Sweet Iris (I. pallida)
This old-fashioned iris has gray-green leaves that reach 24 inches long. The flowers are fragrant and blue-purple. The variegated cultivars offer leaves with creamy yellow and blue-green stripes. Classic lavender-blue flowers top the plants in late spring.
Siberian Iris (I. sibirica)
These moisture-loving irises produce slender, spiky leaves and they are among the easiest of all perennials to grow. Delicate small flowers grace the tops of the plants and once they’re finished blooming, they produce attractive seed heads that can be left on the plant or cut for use in arrangements. Depending on the cultivar, plants range in height from 24 to 42 inches. Siberian iris typically blooms after the bearded iris. Flower colors may be white, yellow, lavender, purple, or multi-colored.
Reticulata Iris (I. reticulata)
One of the first signs of spring are the charming flowers on 6-inch-tall plants. They are best massed in sunny areas of rock gardens, along the front of a border with dwarf daffodils, next to paths or alongside streams or ponds.
Crested Iris (I. cristata)
This native iris is a low-growing, rapidly spreading plant that works as a ground cover. It grows 3 to 6 inches tall and produces underground stems that spread horizontally and shallowly. Crested iris grows best in part shade, but it can adapt to full sun as long as the water supply is adequate. It features pale blue, lilac, or lavender flowers with gold crests on the falls. Iris cristata ‘Alba’ is a white-flowered variation that occurs in wild populations.
Japanese Iris (I. ensata)
In their native habitat, Japanese irises grow in very moist settings or in shallow water. However, they can be grown in consistently moist, humus-rich garden soil, especially if it is slightly acidic. The trick is not allowing the soil to dry out. Wet in the spring and moist in the summer is a good rule for this species, which blooms about a month after bearded iris. The flowers may be at least 6 inches wide in colors that range from white to blue, purple, red-purple and lavender-pink.
Blue flag Iris (I. virginica shrevei)
This Illinois native iris prefers wet to moist soil, partial to full sun, and a rich organic soil. It grows in wet to moist black soil prairies, prairie swales, soggy meadows along rivers, open bottomland woodlands, swamps, fens, seeps, edges of ponds and streams, ditches, and low-lying ground along railroads and roadsides. It makes a great addition to native plants in the home garden.